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GD and Lecturette

1. Pros and cons of the right of children to free and compulsory education:


  • Children from even slums can get into elite school.
  • Under privileged, bright students will not complain of lack of opportunities.
  • Literacy rate will increase, education to the ignored group.
  • Opportunity to students to live and manage with people from diff. economic background.
  • Government would force it on the institutions if the system cannot create this equal opportunity for everyman.


  • Unbalanced system, helps till 8th class after that no support.
  • Change in learning ways as extra focus is required on the under privileged.
  • Mocking of rich to poor daily will hurt the confidence of the poor.
  • School have to pay a part of their fees which can result in fees hiking for other kids.
  • Fees is one thing what about the extra expenses.
  • Conclusion:- Good idea “but” system till 8th, which will create mental, emotional and financial stress for the students beyond that. This needs alternation.

2. Should young leaders be given more importance in the new cabinet:


  • Changing world, young blood moving ahead in every field. Selection should be on individual merits with respect to diff. profiles.
  • Most of the voters supporting BJP are young and are looking forward to see the young energetic people.
  • New governance required, young blood needed who are not following old methods and ideology.
  • Top most agenda of Modi is to develop the “job market”, need to give speed to young to establish the agenda.


  • Democratic country, where Gerontocracy have all the rights to stay in the system.
  • Talent does not belong to young. Old people got the place because they were talented. Age cannot snatch that away.
  • Mature politicians have seen the tough phase in the last few years and have the perspective to bring the change.
  • Nothing can match with their experience.
  • Modi himself cannot be termed as young blood, his thoughts and unmatched skills differentiate him. That is why he won from Rahul Gandhi.
  • Conclusion: Age is no matter when comparing with talent. Simply who is the best and has the talent to bring a change.

3. Exit Polls – Are they of any use?


  • There is a planned way to conduct exit polls. If right procedure is followed, can be a good source of information.
  • Provides with an expected number. Rough idea of about who is going to win. It builds the Euphoria
  • Exist polls can be useful means to detect the fraud by the difference in the results in exit polls and that of the actual result.
  • Exist polls deliver impressive results in the bipolar elections.


  • In the lost five elections the exit polls were nowhere near the actual results.
  • Exit polls cannot be seen as the true picture where the population is not homogeneous.
  • Exist polls are not scientific based, so there is no point in wasting time, energy and money on biased results.
  • Not accurate where two or more parties at par in competition.

Conclusion: Can be used as directional figures as to who is gonna win.

4. India should adopt Modernization rather than westernization


  • Modernization affects a larger group of people has a deep impact on public as well as private institutions.
  • It brings deep change that makes people more rationalist and imbibes a positive spirit.
  • Affects the through process of everyone. Has the power to change perception, belief, opinion and attitude.
  • It creates an environment where people are known for their achievements.
  • Example of ‘Panchayat Raj’ is a step encouraged from modernization.


  • To remove cultural differences and gender bias westernization is required.
  • Provides a common platform, a language as well as culture to unite the youth all over the aiarld.
  • With nuclear families on rise, Indian people need to westernize. Like opting indo Chinese food.
  • Western dressing bring more convenience to women.
  • Conclusion: In a larger picture Westernization is a sub-part of modernization. Modernization is more important as it is for development of India’s economy and the country as a whole, whereas westernization is confined to socialites.

5. Strong opposition by the villagers of Kadamkulam to the nuclear power plant:

– Strong opposition by the villagers in because of the lack of communication mainly between the government and the villagers. Even through other nuclear sites in India are safe. Issues like the project, land takeover, fair compensation, displacement fears, environmental hazards, health issues and so on.(For)

  • Kudamkulam is chosen as it is least prone to earthquakes.
  • Good height, safe from tsunamis
  • ‘Technological proven design’
  • 2 reactors (fully functional) will produce 2000 MW of power
  • Inbuilt safety measures minimize any risk of radiation.


  • Design is new and untested by a European company.
  • By the nature of technology, nuclear power is risky.
  • Doubts about cost per unit of nuclear power.
  • Storage and disposal of Nuclear waste is a concern.
  • Impact of an earthquake or tsunami can be devastating to the people.

Conclusion: Government of state and centre should jointly work to resolve welfare issues and safe passage for the project. 1.25 billion people and rising will require more power projects.

6. India needs a strong dictator:


  • A dictator can easily get rid of the dirt in politics
  • A small community of people actually understand the actual meaning of democracy and don’t make use of it.
  • A dictator may help in eradicating poverty
  • A dictator can help the people realize the meaning of democracy and freedom.


  • India is a strong democratic. A dictator may lead to disruption.
  • India is a big country and people live in harmony and unity. Dictator may not be able to maintain that.
  • Dictatorship may bring short term changes.
  • Human rights can be bypass.
  • Command differences, depending upon the community of the dictator.
  • Malfunction of law and order of the country.

Confusion: Whether a country has a dictator or not, freedom of speech and rights of the citizens is a must. Politics and economics go together:(For)

  • Various political thinkers have linked political ideology with economic arrangement.
  • Left wing – Right wing political division predominantly over itself to differences in economic dedogy

7. Right to reject: Can help in cleaning our political system.


  • Allows the authorities to disapprove any candidate that they found unworthy
  • People will have right to reject corrupt potential parties.
  • Will be a useful tool for anti-corruption legislation.
  • Will ensure that party issues ticket to the most deserving candidate willing to work in national interest.


  • Corruption is an institutionalized structure rejecting politicians won’t eliminate it.
  • Taking part in polling and voting for a candidate would ensure selection of better political parties.
  • It is almost equivalent to not giving a vote as it would only send a message to the party.
  • Right weakens the institution of democracy, it needs to be strengthened.
  • Increase of no majority, re-election requires time, energy and money.
  • Difficult to implement in India (population)

Conclusion:- Will weaken the democracy. It is an interesting possibility People might benefit but not as much as they will, if start voting sensibly.

8. Media is a mixed blessing/How ethical is media?


  • Broadcast news 24/7 and 365 days a year.
  • Helps people realize their duties
  • Update on everything happening around the world.
  • Job opportunities in fields like journalism, advertising, etc.
  • Helps the country in fight against terrorism.
  • Economic states of different countries all across the globe.
  • Helps citizens realize how people in the army lay their live to save ours.


  • Creating unnecessarily hype about overthing.
  • Lives of celebrities are often disclosed in an unethical manner.
  • Wasting time in silly matters like domestic issues.
  • Most of the times accusations are false which puts lives and carrier of many people at stake.

9. Mid-term polls – Should taxpayers pay for it?


  • Taxpayers should not pay for mid term polls as they never receive what they want from the government, which comes in power.
  • Party makes false promises and when they become government, they ask people only to pay for their bills.


  • Taxpayers should pay as they choose for the mid term polls.
  • As people choose the new government with majority, they should be paying for mid-term polls.

10. NGO Leaders should stay away from Politics:


  • Politics make people corrupt NGO leaders are social workers (welfare of people), making it mandatory for them, to stay focused.
  • Entering politics can make them manipulative and decisive and will lose the right path.
  • NGO are non-profit organizations.
  • They may lose their trust amongst people who they are supposed to help.


  • NGO works towards social causes and influence public policies, hence they require knowledge in the politics.
  • Some working in the field of social service can use the political plat from to induce changes.
  • The social activists can socially benefit a nation if the work in accordance with the political sphere.

11. The 2g Scam:


  • The scam involved millions of dollars of money which could be used for a better cause but was involved in corruption.
  • Many companies that received the license were not even eligible.
  • One of the biggest scams in the country. Shakes up the trust of world business in India.
  • FI was affected by this scam. Foreign companies will be in dilemma to invest in India Henceforth.


  • The scam has shown the right path and exposed the loopholes in policies and procedures
  • Foreign companies are matured enough to know that such scams are individualistic and not the fault of the company.
  • India is know for its sovereignty and not the fault of the company.
  • India is known for its sovereignty and integrity, thus foreign companies know that justice would be granted sooner than later.
  • Conclusion: The 2G scam is an eye opener. It reveals as to how policies and procedure are weak in nature, and encourage the government to amend accordingly.

12. Congress should have opted for Priyanka Vadra over Rahul Gandhi.


  • She is more outspoken and confident. She can articulate her words well while speaking to media and people.
  • In her short span of complaining people, media and opposition noticed her, which is a very important quality of in politics. Aggressive character.
  • People connect her with the old Gandhi Family. She seems to display “charisma of dynastic Politics”.
  • Voters see shade of Indira Gandhi in Priyanka Vadra.
  • She didn’t need the support of her mother in fact she became, the support of her brother in Amethi.


  • Rahul G. failed to communicate with the local people.
  • Over shadowed by her mother Sonia G. People though of him as just following his mother’s orders.
  • He failed to present his view points aggressively. He has to be firm and dear on his objectives.
  • He won by very less margin in Amethi, Priyanka Vadra’s last moment campaining came in handy.
  • Rahul G. doesn’t have a political instinct. This was one sided election.

13. Direct Benefit transfer deserves another chance : (Anti-poverty program, (ii) LPG subsidy, (ii) student’s scholarship (iii) National child

(For) Labour project

  • It is an effective scheme where in the objective is to eradicate poverty by giving the cash to deserving beneficiaries.
  • Aim is to remove the middle man and eliminate corruption.
  • Can have a significant impact on the India’s GDP. The right use can greatly improve the expenditure aspect of the fiscal economy.
  • If the initial problems are encountered and the scheme is redesigned very useful, it can be.
  • The largest anti-corruption programme of India.
  • Might need more money to redesign but the benefits from the scheme are much more than the costs.


  • District administration doesn’t have enough resources and means to convert the scheme into’ reality.
  • Ideology is must, Government has to see that the acquire the right people who do not make loopholes for their profit in the new scheme.
  • Strong governance is required to implant/implement DBT scheme.
  • The scheme has to serve both ends. Cash transfer can be misused by beneficiaries.

Conclusion: DBT scheme deserves a second chance “congress should have made it an effective tool for campaigning.

14. Should India implement ‘Right to Homestead’.


  • Food, clothes and ‘Home’ are basic necessities of people which should be full filled at any cost.
  • In a country where 60% of population owns 5% of land, there it is necessary to bring new and effective laws for providing shelter to the needy.
  • Education, that comes after home, is provided by the RTE law, so why deny the Right to Home stead law.


  • Only the corrupt leaders benefit from such schemes.
  • % age of people w/o homes goes above 31%, it is a complex situation and makes it harder for the law to be implemented.
  • Land should be provided at a subsidized rates and not free.
  • Middle class people also don’t have their homes. They are paying huge rents to stay.

15. Can Arvind Kejriwal get back the support in Delhi polls from repeated Drama?


  • Apologies win the hearts of many people
  • AAP won ‘1.3 crore’ votes nation wide which shows people still believe in him.
  • AAP managed to outcast the regional parties.
  • Arvind K. managed to steal a show in Punjab even before apologizing.
  • AAP’s vote came in at 32.9 this time clearly stating that he has not lost all ground in Delhi.


  • He behaved immaturely by resigning in 49days, which will not be forgotten.
  • To form the government AAP made alliance with congress which will prove fatal.
  • Passing the Lokpal bill was not easy and resigning due to failure makes him a weak candidate.
  • The educated young people who gave a first chance to AAP will not repeat the mistake.

Conclusion: He did not involve the local people in his decisions. (resigning) The results are in front of everyone now. Voters now understand diff. b/w street dramas and actual action.

16. Inflation:


  • Caused when there is too much demand or too much money in circulation.
  • It effect the entire economy of the country.
  • A drop in exchange rate, inc. in tax or wages can lead to inflation


  • Depending on what caused inflation, policies should be implemented. “Example : If the cause was excessive demand for commodities it should be reduced.
  • Production cost can be reduced.
  • Banks can inc. interest rates to avoid circulation of money in excess
  • Trying to maintain a stable and fixed currency rate.
  • % age of inflation can be measured using the consumer price index. “It is a measure for price change based on production of good?

17. Is coalition politics here to stay?


  • With coalition politics a wider range of people are able to gain from elections
  • They can organize propaganda and events effectively.
  • Removes the indecisiveness of elections.
  • Advantage of coalition politics is enabling formation of government.


  • Unfortunately this always leads to politics divided by partisan lines, which delays its effectiveness.
  • A party with handful of seats becomes powerful
  • Coalitions will face internal disputes due to differing manifestos.

18. Abolishing Haj Subsidy-Justified?

  • In the year 2009 government spend 3.26 billion rupees as haj subsidy.


  • It is not a compulsion on the part of the state to be bind by such a kind of measure.
  • Use of such subsidy can be used for education, and social development of the minority society.
  • The government funds the Haj Yatra every year which effects the India economy.
  • Outside India (Saudi) Haj is done by people on their own.

19. Electronic Media Vs Print Media:


  • Choice of reading – Allows the user to read anytime and can be carried anywhere.
  • A much affordable form of media.
  • For an individual it is quite an easy mode, people of rural area can easily afford newspaper rather than TV, etc.
  • Relatively easier form of accessibility.
  • Public for campaigns etc.


  • A more advanced form.
  • Introduces more job opportunities.
  • Relatively more innovative.
  • Appropriate for instant polls reviews of public
  • Better for people with hearing and seeing disability.
  • Can be made LIVE.

20. Corruption is the price we pay for democracy.


  • Democracy makes everybody a free bird, and some politicians miss-use this in wrong ways.
  • Aims of such people may not be for the betterment of the country.
  • Democracy allows people to choose their leader. Leader can thus buy votes.


  • Corruption is not a direct result of democracy. It can exist anyway. It is an individuals fault.
  • When people choose their leader, they must think twice before doing so. If they accept bribe, democracy cannot be blamed for it.

21. Celebrities should be welcomed in politics.


  • They attract masses and can sway public opinion in the right direction.
  • The celebrities have been successful in their fields and can have the right ethics of being successful in politics.
  • They can do a lot for the welfare of the people as they live amongst them.
  • They have the power to convince and persuade the majority.
  • They have huge fan following which makes it easier for them to operate and fetch votes.


  • Whether its Govinda or anyone else no one’s attendance has been upto the mark in parliament.
  • No one has raised any issue, which has worked in favour of the nation.
  • Achievements of actors in politics are close to negligible.
  • They don’t seem to have the political mind frame to perform in politics.

22. Ditching the Kyoto Protocol (carbon emission) – Is India’s objection EU justified?


  • Kyoto protocol requires India to cut down on carbon emission which halts the progress of development.
  • It is not fair as it accords cutting down of equal amount of carbon emission for both developing countries & developed.
  • India is a poor country and if it cuts down carbon emissions it will suffer unemployment, poverty, etc.
  • India as a developing country so needs loads of industries and mechanical power which emits carbon.


  • It is not justified as global warming and environmental degradation has has global consequences.
  • On the contrary India should take the part in tackling climate change.
  • India has a large population which results in a lot of carbon emission, which hinders the health of the environment.
  • Objecting this protocol will result in collapse of the process, which is the only international forum working for upliftment of poor countries.

23. Technology creates Income Disparities:


  • Technology is uniformly distributed through out the country. More technology means more employment, which creates a difference between the rural and urban areas.
  • There is a major cut down in employment charts as technology reduces the dependency on manpower which is favorable to an organization.
  • As urban people have the knowledge about the technology more, they are the preferred choice own rural people.


  • Technology can provide for better education, making it an effective tool for everyone.
  • It teaches an easier way of doing things more efficiently and effectively.
  • More source are utilized thus increasing employment.
  • new innovation leads to new discoveries.
  • It helps in developing a country’s economy.
  • Improvement in technology today means less dependence on other counties.

Conclusion: It works as a catalyst in the growth of the country. It bridges the income gap between poor and rich by creating employment opportunities but due to less use of technology it is seen as income disparity.

24. The IT boom and the growing pressure on Indian cities.


  • The rapid transformation, from diminutive area to global metropolis it is not easy for those who don’t have a feeling for this change.
  • The essential commodities have had a sharp rise in its price.
  • The land rate have rocketed sky high and it is impossible for a person working in a government job to own a house of his choice.
  • People are migrating to IT cities, populating it and making it even worse for living.
  • Migration of people from rural to urban areas has put agriculture on a back foot, making it hard to provide for the ever-growing population.


  • Booming IT industries has boosted the food production. There is substantial increase towards personal fulfillment.
  • IT people going all over the world has boosted the Indian economy to a great extent.
  • Lots of job opportunities have showed up in field of IT.
  • Indians in IT industries abroad are a major cause of foreign income.

Conclusion: IT boom is a blessing in disguise, but that said it has its downsides. The growing pressure on the IT cities because of people migrating in the cities are creating a lot of problems.

25. Rising Petrol prices- Govt. can control?


  • can start using alt. sources of energy such as electric energy, solar, wind, hydroelectric, etc.
  • Better roads and handling traffic can help save the petrol we burn, which will help the government in reducing the prices.
  • Better public transport can motivate people to reduce the usage of their vehicles.
  • Providing subsidies on diesel


  • (IMP) The main reason in hike is corruption, imbalanced Indian economy, fluctuating dollar, dependency on imports, price of crude oil in international market, rising population etc.
  • The other main reason is inc. in demand compared to low supply of petrol.
  • Government alone cannot do it we as citizens should also save petrol as much as we can.

26. China is a threat in Indian IT Industry:


  • China provides software at cheaper rates which most of the people prefer.
  • Skilled man power
  • Most of the good professionals are not working for India. It Industry which is the biggest drawback.
  • of China invests million of dollars in research laboratories and development programmes.
  • China software are well known today.


  • In recent times India is far ahead than china in IT industry and developing very fast.
  • Due to language barrier china is behind India as English is preferred all over the world.
  • Indian companies are recruiting from Chinese Universities which is an added advantage.

Conclusion: China is no threat to Indian IT industry as Indian Industry is way ahead and progressing very fast. China is good competition and competition is healthy for progress.

27. A permanent seat in UN council is neither necessary nor sufficient for India to be come a world power:


  • Few of the goals of the un council is to eradicate poverty, child mortality, etc. and India is anyway encountering these issues today.
  • India needs to grow more from a technological and economical standpoint, thus such a seat is not necessary.
  • The permanent members are extremely advanced
  • There are other ways for India to become a world power. For eg: India can improve literacy rate, try and eradicate crime and poverty. When such things are in control a country inherently emerges as world power.


  • Will give more recognition than today.
  • The kind of structure, recognition and power this council holds, if India becomes a permanent member, it will gradually help India become a world power.
  • The council resolved issues like peace consolidation in West Africa, situation in Middle east, such issues will make India more responsible
  • Few of the functions of the council is to take military action against an aggressor and to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments. India being strong from a military perspective could be considered a world power.

Conclusion: India has emerged as a developing nation and will continue to do so. Such a seat is necessary for India to gain world power.

28. FDI in Retail – Will really affect the farmers?


  • They might have to shut down their farms due to corporatization of the farming sector.
  • It has divided India’s social, political and trading classes. It works on the divide and rule concept.
  • It would mean depreciation of Indian money, affecting the economy of India.
  • Retailers will have anonymous control over three suppliers, indirectly affecting the formers.
  • This kind of structure will result in reduced farm prices.
  • It will have disastrous consequence on the Indian farmer as the buyer has total control over the seller.
  • Big retail outlets will have to sell their crop at lower prices and shrink their margins.


  • It will be better for the farmers as the middleman will give them a better price.
  • Farmers will get the opportunity to sell their goods to big Chains directly rather than the immediate brokers.
  • Induction of foreign investors will definitely help the small traders.
  • It will depend on the economic cooperation between and India.

29. US Debt Crisis – impact on the world market.


  • It should result in global economic collapse and recession should turn worse.
  • The US economy has been borrowing for a long period of time.
  • The rest of the world is dependent upon the US consumers as a source of global demand.
  • US being the largest economy and dollar as the world’s reserve currency has many implications on the global economy.
  • This debt would result in the loss of confidence of the investors globally.


  • There are other major economics as well, such as euro. Thus it would not have an impact on the world market.

30. MGNREGA (2005) – A key to increase employment in the country :


  • Act was enacted to provide a job guarantee to the Rural people in India.
  • Act provides for min. 100 days of paid employment every year to adult member of any family with min. wage of 120/ day.
  • It is expected to result in inc. in the rural employment, especially for women.
  • People under this scheme are getting fixed wages and working towards the development of the country.


  • This act was disparaged by people as it is just of as any other such acts in the system. The Act should not only be enacted, it has to be looked onto by the government and see to it that it runs successfully all around.
  • People have complained about low wages paid or not paid at all, they have to bribe the officer to get a job. corruption to me is the main cause of the act’s failure.
  • Quality of work by unskilled labor is much poor that the skill labor. People are not taught any new skill to improve the quality.
  • Even with such acts enacted the migration from rural to urban areas is not reduced.

Conclusion: It is a great way to support the Indian society and people should change their thinking and try to support this development. Corruption should be barred from it. It will provide India a bridge in becoming a super power.

31. Sanctions against Iran – right or wrong?

These sanctions include restricting or barring military export to Iran, any investment on oil, gas or petroleum. It also includes restricting any business dealings including banks and shipping.(For)

  • The ban can be justified as the country has been involved in international obligations and Nuclear programs.
  • This could give Iran a reality check and realize that all countries need to live in harmony.
  • The Iran regime because of these sanctions could stop its sponsorship for terrorist attack.
  • Such sanctions could drive Iran to reduce its nuclear weapons capability and not oppress its own citizens.


  • It is an enriched oil dominated country. This will affect the countries that depend on Iran for oil.
  • Us sanctioning against Iran could be justified as their disputes date back to 1979. Other cou7ntries could just get influenced.
  • Imposing such sanctions will affect the world economy.
  • Iran’s currency value is being dropped and is always worried of an attack.
  • Because of inter-country disputes, the common man and poor citizens are affected.

Conclusion: Even through the Iran regime is affirmative that such sanctions cannot affect them or their economy, but if gradually all countries start to encourage the sanction against Iran, it will adversely affect the country.

32. Depredation of Indian rupee has only negative impact on the economy:


  • Due to European financial crisis the value of rupee has been depreciated. Thus affecting the economy.
  • The demand of dollar has inc. in contrast to that of Rupee and has startled our economy
  • It has resulted in depreciation of purchasing power parity. (PPP)
  • It has resulted in inc in inflation and thus stagnant growth of the economy.
  • These Frailties and volatilities among the European markets is sure to have an impact in the entire Asian markets including India.
  • would have to pay more in terms of Rupee for its imports.


  • The exporters gain from the depreciation of rupee as they get more of the local currency in exchange.
  • The depreciation is like a Boom for the IT rectors as it generates more than 80% of their revenue from the overseas market.
  • Emigrants living outside India also benefit from the depreciation.

33. RBI cannot control inflation with its temporary monetary policies.


  • Inflation is not a spontaneous reaction, it builds up over time and is caused by various reasons, thus temporary policies are not going to be effective.
  • These policies will contain it bat will not eradicate it from its root.
  • Such temporary policies will result in deterioration of growth and development.
  • It will result in moderation of inflation but will still remain above tolerance level.
  • There, are various reasons over the fiscal deficit, the (more imports than exports) current account deficit” and deteriorating asset quality” loom large.
  • The food inflation has resulted in the rise of prices of fuel and other commodities which accentuated domestic inflationary pressure.


  • The temp. policies have reduced the stress on economic frailties.
  • RBI has inc. the repo rate which is one way to deal with inflation and has worked effectively.
  • policies have been applied to control the supply shocks, and they are main reasons driving inflation.
  • It allows the banks and private sectors to adjust the high interest rate gradually.

34. Sports in India:

  • The country has won eight Olympic gold medals in hockey. (National game)
  • Hosted international sports events including 1951 and 1982-Asian games, The 1987, 1996 and 2011 Cricket world cup, 2013 Afro-Asian games, 2010 Hockey world cup and 2010 commonwealth games. 2011 India hosted its first Indian Grand Prix at the Budh International Cricket.
  • India is home to crickets Indian premier league (IPL) (2008).
  • The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and Arjuna Award are the highest awards for achievement in sports, and Dronacharya award for excellence in coaching in India.
  • 1928 to 1962 (Helsinki) India had bagged the gold medal in Olympics 5 times in a row.

35. India-US relations:

  • Despite being one of the pioneers and founding member of the NAM, it developed closer relation to the Soviet Union and after its dissolution in 1991, India began to review its foreign policy in an umpire world and took steps to develop closer ties with EU and United States.
  • Today, India and the US share an extensive cultural, Military and economic relationships.
  • In July 2007, the two countries completed negotiations on the bilateral agreement for peaceful nuclear cooperation, also known as ‘123’ agreement. This benefits India in terms of energy security, economic growth, environmental impact an improvements in science and technology. It benefits US in terms of economic market improvements and job creation.
  • US is one of India’s largest direct investors From 1991 to 2004 the stock FDI inflow has increased from USD $ 11.3 million to $ 344.4 million and totaling $ 4.13 billion, i.e., compound rate inc. of 57.5% annually.

36. Pollution:

  • Pollution is something added to the environment that is harmful or poisonous to living thins. Smoke in the air from factories is a type of pollution as it is bad for the lungs when breathed in. Savage in dirking water is another harmful type of pollution, as it can make people ill.
  • Pollution is of 4 types mainly : (i) Air (ii) Water (iii) Noise and (iv) Soil
  • – Air → CO2, SO2, NO2, CO and small particles of carbon.
  • Water → Sewage, heavy metals, waste from farms and factories and crude oil spilled from farms and factories and crude oil spilled from ship wrecked Nitrates and detergents are more such substances.
  • – Noise → Sound of vehicles, loud speakers, horns, infrastructure drilling, etc.
  • – Soil → man-made chemicals, hydro carbons, heavy metals, solvents, industrial activity and also improper waste disposal.

37. Economy of India

  • 10th largest economy in the world nominal GDP and third largest by PPP (Purchasing Power Parity).
  • Due of the member of G-20 major economics and BRICS as well.
  • 19th largest exporter and 10th largest imposter.
  • 11th largest in terms of nominal factory outlet.
  • Textile manufacturing is 2nd largest source of employment after agriculture, provides direct employment to 35 million people.
  • Services output is 13th in the world, provides employment to 27% of work force.
  • The Indian retail market is estimated to US $ 450 billion and one of the top 5 retail markets in the world by economic value.
  • Tourism in India contributes 6.23% to the national GDP. India’s rich history and culture and geographical diversity makes its international tourism large and diverse.
  • India ranks 2nd worldwide in farm output.
  • Agriculture and allied sectors account for 17% of the GDP, employ 51% of the total workforce.
  • India is largest producer of jute, milk and pulses in the world, 2nd largest in wheat, rice sugarcane, cotton and groundnuts
  • As the 3rd largest economy in the world in terms of PPP, India is a preferred destination for FDI. During 2000 -2010 the country attracted 1778 billions as FDI. Top 3 countries investing in FDI inflows are 1) Mauritius 2) Singapore 3) USA

38. EVE Teasing:

  • It is a euphemism used in India, Pakistan (and sometimes Nepal and Bhutan) for senual harassment or molestation of women by men.
  • Section 294 of the Indian Penal code, which sentences a man found guilty of making a girl or women the target of obscene gestures, remarks, songs or recitation to a minimum jail sentence for three months. Section 292 of IPC, showing pornographic or obscene pictures, books or papers to woman results in a fine of Rs. 2000 with two year imprisonment for first offenders and for repeaters Rs. 5000 fine with 5 years imprisonment.

39. Democracy in India:

  • India is the 7th largest (by area) and 2nd most popular country in the world. It is the world’s largest democracy. Elections to the Parliament are held in every 5 years. India is constitutional republic governed under world’s longest written constitution.

40. India-Pak relations:

  • Three Indo-Pak wars of 1947, 65, and 71.



  • Deflation is potentially very damaging to the economy and can lead to lower growth. eg: when prices are falling consumers are encouraged to delay purchasing.
  • A moderate inflation rate reduces the real value of debt. If there is deflation the real value of debt. Inc. leading to a squeeze on disposal incomes.
  • Moderate rates of inflation allow prices to adjust.
  • Moderate rates of inflation is sign of healthy economy.


  • High inflation rates tend to cause uncertainty and confusion leading to less investment.
  • High inflation leads to lower international competitiveness.
  • Inflation and stagnant wage growth leads to declining incomes.
  • Inflation can reduce the real value of bravings, which might affect people who live on savings.

(Short Discussion Points)

42. How can India attract more tourists:

  • Facility
  • Security
  • Advertisements

43. Why India is not performing well is sports:

  • Infrastructure
  • Lack of motivation among players
  • Politicization of sports.

44. Why is crime increasing in our society:

  • Ineffective Police.
  • Delayed justice
  • Political interference.

45. What is the solution to Indo-Pak relations:

  • Political solution
  • Military solution
  • Convert LOC into international border.

46. Who is responsible to crime against Women:

  • Male dominated society
  • Western influence
  • Lack of awareness

47. Which is the biggest problem our country in facing:

  • Illiteracy
  • Poverty
  • Population

48. How Brain Drain can be stopped :

  • Making a law
  • Better working condition in India.
  • Financial attraction

49. How can the criminalization of politics be reduced:

  • Public awareness
  • Strict rules and regulations.
  • Party should ban tickets to candidates having criminal background.

50. How can rail accidents be avoided :

  • Privatization
  • Modernization
  • Implement strict rules and regulations.

51. In present Nuclear environment, what should India do?

  • Go fully nuclear
  • Sign CTBT (comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty)
  • Maintain present policy

Stage 1– Pressurized heavy water reactor

Stage 2– Fast breeder reactor

Stage 3– Thorium based reactors

52. To become a super power what should India do?

  • Have a strong defence budget.
  • Have a strong economy
  • Scientific and technological development

53. How to overcome shortage of officers in the Indian Armed Forces:

  • Increase Quota for Women.
  • Increase Departmental commission
  • Reduce the standard of SSB.

54. Who is responsible for eve-teasing:

  • Western culture
  • Lack of values in society

55. Who is responsible for corruption in India:

  • Politicians
  • Bureaucrats
  • Eroding value system
  • Other reasons.

56. The Naxalite Goblem: Red corridor

  • Has affected 20 states, 223 districts.
  • Name after Naxalbari village Siliburi, West Bengal.
  • Started under the leadership of Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal in 1967 against landlords and money lenders.
  • Today Naxalism has been proliferated from Bengal in North to Kerela in South.
  • Naxalities claim to represent those who are often left untouched by India’s development and by passed by electoral process.
  • The area under the control of the Naxal group is known as ‘Rod-Corridor’
  • Major Reasons→ Non-Implementation of social reforms; Lack of development, poor economic policies, Non-implementation of land reforms, Loosing faith in judiciary. (Their own ‘Jan Adalat’) areas
  • Teaching the Naxals, by developing neglected areas, Better Governance; Widespread education, Faster economic developments, Providing job opportunities to youth, Opening the channels for discussion.
  • Engaging the Naxals, Modernization of the Police force; Better training and equipment, Sharing Intelligence and launching joint operations by adjoining states; Surrender and resettlement scheme for Naxals in affected areas.

57. Social aspects of Television :


  • Pseudo relationship are formed with TV characters to avoid lordliness. Watching television is considered a positive. Consequence at it can counteract the psychological damage. Thta is caused by isolation form social relationships.
  • Educational advantages. It is a very powerful and effective learning toal for children if used wisely. It teacher young people to discover where they fit in society, develop closer relationships with pears and family, and teach them to understand complex social aspects of communication. It makes people place more value on achievement and were more creative.


  • Psychological effects (Basal ganglia (Dopamine))
  • Physical effects
  • Propaganda

58. Save the Rod Spoil the child:


  • Importance of teaching respect, respect could go a long way to helping young stress in making choice regarding their behavior. And not respecting yours elders but also one self and peers.
  • This an be taught at an early age to the child and once it has been inculcated, it will be part of child’s behavior forever.


  • Use the reinforcements, explain as to why the child can’t do something and what are the consequence if he does it.
  • Use of love and affection
  • To pin point about every danger and educate with patience about the ways of life.
  • This will avoid any eargners of rebellious nature in a child.

59. Black Hole

  • Stars end up as black holes. It involves the gravity and internal pressure within the star. These two things oppose each other. Gravity action on a chunk of matter will tend to make it fall inwards where as the internal pressure tends to do the opposite, when these two forces are of equal in strength the star maintains its size, same is the case with the sun and as well as the earth.
  • When a star runs out of nuclear fuel it emits out light energy and nuclear fusion occures in this case gravity wins over the internal pressure and the star collapses.
  • E = MC2 = Through some speculation black holes can radiate energy and in the process their mass would
  • Light does not escape. Light tends to bend not much on earth but in a place like black hole the bending inc. with massive inc. of gravity, thus light does not escape.

60. Mobile Phone –Requirement of the day.


  • Made life easier. Connecting with people all over the world in a few records.
  • Boon for every business as information can be passed very quickly.
  • Everyone available 27 × 7
  • Got in touch with friends and relatives anytime we want.
  • Information related to any area available.
  • Parents are stress-free as they can connect to children anytime.


  • Mobile phones –electro magnetic waves – harm the body.
  • Don’t have time for ourselves
  • Accidents are caused due to mobile phones.
  • Ruined social life- talk to friends and relatives over phone instead of meeting them personally.
  • Children rather than studying are busy on phones.

Conclusion : Great invention but usage should be controlled.

61. India-really the nextgen superpower: 


  • How mass labour and production which can take it to another level.
  • Has already put a stamp of authority in the IT and ready to a reach the world stage in manufacturing
  • Has entreneurship and leadership capabilities.
  • Economic liberalization has resulted in the rise of the growth ratio of the middle class.


  • Shown a slowdown in economy.
  • India is under massive poverty and unemployment.
  • One of the major cause for faltered growth corruption.
  • Infrastructure such as rails still need to be dealt with.

62. Live in relationships should be encouraged:


  • Likes and dislikes of partner is known.
  • No social obligation to fulfill
  • If couple feels they are not compatible can easily separate w/o guilt or harm.
  • Cut down on divorce rates
  • A sense of maturity is developed.


  • Can hurt sentiments of many communities
  • Not as open in Indian society, may cause a sense of discomfort to the people around.
  • Most of the times live in relationships go against the family.

63. NGO’s – Do they serve people’s interests.


  • NGO’s serve people’s interest by utilizing funds from foreign or native countries, w/o being pressurized by any other section.
  • They are also representatives to voice against any issue that goes against their interest.
  • They have shown how to handle social issues better than the government.
  • They reach out to the rural areas and understand their concerns and try to improve their lives with aid provided by foreign countries, govt. bodies, companies etc.
  • They run various programs which are responsible for decisive inc. in self employment, level of education, women empowerment etc.


  • They enjoy a lot of support which makes them powerful.
  • Have major role to play in politics as they serve people’s opinion.
  • Work hard to solve public issues and thus pressuring the concerned authority.
  • Some work to evade taxes only.

64. Compulsory voting in local body elections a right step by Gujrat?


  • The low turnout of voters is the prime reason as to why rightful candidates do not get elected.
  • Voting is compulsory – also rules are made for the voter to refrain from voting.
  • People will be more aware of the importance of the MC, Munp. and Panchayats.

NOTA is still a choice.

  • This step can prompt other states to take the same step as well. (Maharashtra polls – 55% and Lok Sabha elections – 48%).


  • Violation of freedom under Article 21.
  • Violation of the spirit of democracy.
  • Right nerve imply obligations.
  • A voluntary atmosphere to choose is more imp. than compulsory voting.

Conclusion: prime question is will the democratic structure or the quality of politician improve with this compulsion.? 

65. Should Land Acquisition Act be Amended? 


  • Cost to acquire land is rising making it tough for the imp. and significant projects to acquire land.
  • Should be drafted keeping in mind the interests of both parties.
  • Amendment should not be touching the sections of rehabilitation, compensation and resettlement, so it should not be a problem.
  • After the change in the bill in 2013, Land costs rose by 40% of total project cost as compared to 5%


  • Any further amendment will create problems and complicate the clear defiant acquisition process.
  • Amendments will create loop holes that the companies can use for their own benefit.
  • Earlier it was farmer friendly, now it’s business friendly.

66. Unwed mothers by choice – Support.


  • In a Society, a woman can take any bold step and make her own choice as she has every right to do so.
  • In a world which talks about woman empowerment, this change should also be welcomed.
  • Single mother can always get married later.
  • Woman all over world adopt children – no need to be the biological mother.


  • In upbringing in a proper way the love of both mother and father are needed.
  • Single parenting decision can have negative effect on the child socially and emotionally.
  • Wrong message to the society – should adopt instead.
  • Indian villages – strength or weakness?

67. Villages Vs. Metropolitan


  • People in metropolitan cities also depend on villages for a living.
  • India – agricultural country– 70% reside in villages.
  • People living in metropolitan cities come from villages.
  • Famous people – Ratan Tata, Lakshmi Mittal, Dhiru Bhai Ambani are from villages.
  • Villages – Backbone of India – w/o them there would be food shortage.
  • Production units of Big companies – get low cost infrastructure and abundance of labour.


  • Level of education is low in villages.
  • Low job opportunities in villages.
  • Not technologically advanced.

68. In Business, rear view mirror is cleaner than the windshield:


  • Unless a windshield – not possible to foresee threats ‘always’
  • Even if the view is not clear, we still drive we still move ahead in business.
  • Just like driving risks and fears are existent, same is with business.
  • Rear view mirror_____ path we have already cross _____ same with business.


  • Strategy matters – if goal is clear nothing else matters.
  • Not only strategies – business runs on money and luck.
  • Business depends on management a
  • Business is about risks if we could foresee everyone would be equally successful.

69. Inflation:

Causes when there is too much demand for goods or due to too much money circulation.

  • Affects the entire nation.
  • Drop(¯) in exchange rate or (­) inc. tax or wages can cause inflation.


  • Depending on cause, policies should be made accordingly.
  • Production cost ¯
  • Banks ® Interest rates ­ – to avoid circulation of money
  • Stable and Fixed accuracy rate.
  • % age of inflation can be measured using consumers price index.

70. Impact of globalization:

It can be defined as social, political and economic changes that we adapt to consequences due strong currency rates, constructions, trading.

Positive Impact Capital Market

  • Introducing new technologies in telecommunication, introduction of satellites, mobile, etc. (resets)
  • Living standard are risen
  • Scientific research (results)
  • Better trade. More people are employed.

Negative Impact

  • Too much flow of capital amongst countries.
  • Fear of losing natural integrity.
  • Mental pressure on companies that cause people to lose their jobs.

71. India’s huge population boon or bane?


  • India’s population is a boon, as it will result in higher income which in turn result in higher saving.
  • over-population gives us an absolute force of cheap manpower which is very useful
  • People opting for govt offices – creates more social force.
  • Different fields have come as – which guarantees more jobs.
  • Large population means more domestic intelligence
  • Increase in Labour – Bigger land made exports.


  • Creates unemployment as the population keeps on increasing.
  • India infrastructure cannot withstand the growing population.
  • Literacy rate decreases – more people under BPL.
  • Major drop in standard of living and health department
  • Use of grain is increasing – impossible to supply to growing population.
  • Awareness programmes have failed.
  • Huge unfed population can lead to criminalization.

72. A university is what a college becomes when the faculty loses interest in teaching the students.


  • Usually in both, professors are involved in so much and are paid less which make them those their.
  • Most colleges don’t have facilities for teacher so makes it monotonous for teachers and no recreation.
  • Because of the education system’s nature teacher can’t think beyond marks.
  • Because of teacher mechanisms students lose this interest and affects teachers.


  • This is not for renowned colleges like IIM’s and IIT’s where teacher are extremely invested in students. This cannot be lost.
  • Cannot compare college and university.

Conclusion: Education system should be improved. Not only about marks. Recreational activities should be arranged, which may establish interest. 

73. Should we change the present system of education in our country.


  • There is need for more innovation in education system.
  • Advanced technology should be used to complete with different countries.
  • More amendments are required to make students mentally strong.
  • Should focus more on individual development.
  • Should teach value and manners.


  • The system in automatically changing and introducing new modern options for students.
  • Already included improvements like “balanced text books are more interactive.
  • Currently using more technological programmes to improve a student’s memory.
  • Programs to improve students mentally and professionally.

Conclusion: Needs revision to make it stronger 

74. Beauty contests degrade womanhood.


  • Beauty peagents give women a platform to showcase their talent.
  • Realize inner self and confidence.
  • Gives them new opportunities.
  • Many leading actresses have won beauty peagents.
  • Ordinary girls gets celebrity status.
  • Not only about peagents. Girls learn responsibility as lot of social work is required.


  • Most peagents are considered vulgar.
  • Swim wear is considered offensive
  • Many give up their religious and cultural sentiments to win.
  • Many young girls give up education to participate.

Conclusion :

Depends on Individual perspective. Undoubtedly a platform for young girls to achieve a lot in life.

75. Multinational corporations:

Are they devils in Disguise?

Cannot be a devil in disguise. They bring in revenue, job opportunities. Helps a country to get global recognition. Majority for profits.

  • They bring quality to services and raise economy.
  • Most even provide transport, accommodations, food, insurance, crèche etc. to employees.
  • Give high salaries which keep employees motivated.
  • They give onsite opportunities.
  • Some think that they pressurize the employees with work.
  • This pressure leads to domestic violence issue, etc.

76. Examination – has it killed education?


  • Exams unnecessarily pressurize the students.
  • In India especially many exams are held throughout the year. Students barely have time for extra curricular activities.
  • Most exams are incapable to evaluate real capability if a student.
  • Exams in India are based on marks. Grades are more appropriate.


  • Helps the students to stay connected to books.
  • They help student understand pressure which they will face professionally.
  • Exams help in facing competition.


  • Exams should not be theoretical. Most questions should be MCQ to really understand analytical ability of the child.

77. China – A threat to India?


  • China is the largest country in east Asia and India needs many years to catch up to it.
  • China is world’s third largest and fastest growing economy.
  • Has largest standing army with 2nd largest defence budget.
  • 2nd largest exporter and 3rd largest importer of goods.
  • Exceeds us in every way be it infrastructure, growing economics, sustainable development etc.
  • China has started claiming some of India’s border which is worrying situation for India.


  • China may have a large army but not as experienced as India’s.
  • India has more favorable diplomatic situation in the world.
  • China is dependent on export for economy, if they disturb this balance with India or any other it’s market would suffer.
  • Inable to converse fluently in English is still a drawback to China.

Conclusion – Not a threat.

78. Govt. Instead of funding IIM’s and IIT’s should divert to primary education.


  • Primary edu. Is compulsory for a person to build up his personality but not every individual receives primary edu.
  • should make more people literate, rather them focusing on small population.
  • Students from IIT’s and IIM’s are migrating to other countries.
  • Illiterate people are incapable of meeting expenses of the primary schools let alone IIT’s and IIM’s.
  • Primary edu. is compulsory for overall growth of India.


  • India – developing nation – needs these institutes to polish youth, to perform on the international front.
  • Students migrating benefit our economy while connecting us globally.
  • Students are coming from other countries to these institutes thus generating revenue for India.
  • Big institutes like these help in creating job opportunities in India.
  • Students in these institutes are already capable to pay the expresses.

79. Good economics is bad politics:


  • The real test come when the economic conditions are suffering from a crisis.
  • Whether its rise is petrol price or gold its bad politics even through it may improve the economy. Common man suffers the most.
  • When there is less politics, less selfish decisions can be made.


  • In a democratic country and densely populated country like India, it is certain that you encounter situation where tough decision making is required.

80. The role of NGO’s in economics and politics.

  • They are building blocks of the global community and are contributors to economic production, employment, institutional innovation and technology.
  • They work solely for people’s welfare, represent people’s voice.
  • In most cases NGO’s prove to handle issues much better than the govt.
  • Even today, unfortunately there are many NGO’s that produce fake papers and work and take support from govt.
  • If NGO’s can work for people’s interest w/o any intention of money and profit they can be a better substitute of the govt.

81. BOP’s in India (Business Process Outsourcing)


  • Increase tremendous job opportunities.
  • Youngsters, house wives are most common. College student get more than their pocket money.
  • Gets revenue to the country.


  • Most BPO’s outsource from US or UK. Difference in time zones is a major hurdle.
  • This difference makes employees work late at night.
  • Introduce health disasters.
  • Domestic issues are introduced if partner works in the day.
  • Employees work at night – unsafe for women.

82. Privatization will lead to less corruption.


  • Reduction in prices of goods and has less interference of govt.
  • Close relation b/w employees and managers. Both work together for profits in a correct way.
  • Salaries are higher. People are continuously motivated. Reduces charges of bribes, etc.


  • Privatization gives more liberty to people
  • It will introduce more risk. People trying to save assets will get into corruption.
  • It may lead to monopoly. People may do any sort of “adjustments.”
  • Corruption is related directly from person to person
  • Privatizing will reduce corruption.

83. Indo-US

  • INDO-US civil nuclear Agreement (2008)
  • INDO-US defense co-op Agreement – Participate in Rimpal, Malabar, Red Flag, Yudh Abhyas.
  • Sees India as Asia pacific power – As China is O treat to US.
  • Indian Market and economy – Rising rapidly, US and other counties interested, UN states a 5.3% growth in economy.
  • India – to adopt a cautions and calculated policy posture.

84. Control Inflation

  • Policy rate ­25%
  • Interest rate ­25 to 7.50%
  • To improve liquidity with banks
  • Marginal standing facility Rate (MSFR)

(Banks borrow from RBI)

  • ¯75% to 9.5%
  • Repo rate – ­25 to 7.5%
  • CRR (Deposits with RBI incash) – unchanged at 4%

85. Impact of Globalization :

  • Better economy – rapid develop of capital market.
  • Introducing new technologies, – telecommunication, satellites, mobiles, etc.
  • New scientific research patterns.
  • Living standards have risen.
  • Culturally – diff. ideologies, through process.
  • Politically – Western democratic system.

86. Censorship on social media

  • Certain pages are defamatory.
  • Offensive to the people of the nation.
  • Can bring about a rift in society
  • Used for mass chaos.
  • Social media not be treated differently than media, like books or press – which are not censored


  • More trade and exchange of goods. More job opportunities.
  • India – Income barely saved, – Abroad – work and study (Can save)
  • Universities – should offer opportunities not only for studies but jobs on campus too.
  • Mindset of the people has to change
  • Contributes to our National income

88. Universal Disarmament

  • Peaceful world
  • Relation b/w countries will be more congenial
  • Against terrorism. Criminal – required.
  • Due to nuclear weapon competition – not possible
  • Wont solve terrorism.

89. Curbing Child Labour

  • Matchbox, carpet making (Industries) residential houses, mines and construction.
  • Causes – Poverty, huge families, unemployment.
  • Joint effort required.

90. FDI

  • Powering of funds – help in revenue generation.
  • Improved technology as well as skills reduce the cost of buying machinery.
  • job prospects (lowers unemployment)
  • Boost to schools, colleges and IT
  • Increase import-export ration – help economy.
  • Domestic industries will be stable.
  • Political pressure
  • Inflation is high
  • in foreign dependency.

91. Asean and India

  • Increased, trade turn over to $12 billion. Most prominent trading partners Malaysia and Singapore.
  • Boosted tourism. Maritime security.
  • India and Thailand – free trade policy (Import of 84 items at 50% of normal duty)
  • CECA and Mckong Ganga cooperation (MGC) are some vital steps. (India)

92. Role of women – Socio-Economic growth.

Lijat paped – From 7 women to 43,000 loby workers (By. Jashwantiben popat)

Ela Bhatt founder of Sewa

93. India Foreign Policy.

Strategic foreign policy – maintain good relations even with rivals. Nuclear deal with US and nuclear submarines from Russia.

Good relations with Palestine and Israel. (Two deadly enemies)

Its like chess – cannot react to each and every move of the opponent.

94. Indian Economy

  • Agriculture – 2nd in farm output, 17% of GDP and 51% of employment.
  • Industry – 26% of GDP, 22% of employment .
  • Petroleum and chemicals – 34% of export earnings 5% of total of world GDP.
  • Pharmaceuticals – 8% of global pharma supply.
  • Engineering – $67 billion exports (2013-14)

– 29% of world’s tractor production

  • Gems and jewellery – GDP(17%)

– Employs millions

– Mayor source of FOREX earnings.

  • Textile – GDP (4%), 17% export earnings.
  • Mining – GDP (2.3%), employs 2.9 million.
  • Services – GDP (57%), 27% employment (largest)
  • Energy and power
  • Infrastructure – 5% GDP
  • Retail – 15% to 20%, GDP.
  • Tourism – 5.92% GDP, 9.3% employment.
  • Banking and Finance –
  • FDI – rank (Mauritius, Singapore, USA)

– 2011($36s billion inflow)

– (51.1% higher than 2010)

  • FDI by Indian companies outside India (1.34% GDP)
  • 4th largest economy in the world.

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